Integration of the Project Goods
Integration of the Project Goods / Implementation With Management
The integration of the project goods depends to the needs, activities to be carried and demand and availability of the goods/ services to be offered to the project beneficiaries.
Organizational climate is measures attempts to assess organizations in terms of dimensions that are thought to capture and describe perceptions about climate can be measured questionnaire such as that developed by within and stringer(1968) which covers eight categories:-
- Structure: – Feelings about constraints and freedom to act and the degree of formality and informality in the working atmosphere .
- Responsibility: – The feeling of being trusted to carryout important work.
- Risk:- The sense of fastness and challenges in the job and in the organization, the relative emphasis on taking calculated risks or playing it safe.
- Warmth:- The existence of friendly and informal social groups.
- Support :- The perceived helpfulness of manager and co-workers , the emphasis (or lack of emphasis) on mutual support.
- Standards:- The perceived importance of implicit and explicit goals and standards , the emphasis on doing a good job, the challenge represented in personal and team goals.
- Conflicts:- the feeling that managers and other workers want to hear different opinions , the emphasis on getting problems out into the open rather and smoothing them over or ignoring them.
- Identity:- The feeling feet you belong to accompany , that you are available member of working team.
A review of a number of questionnaires was carried out by Koys and De Cotties(1991), which produced the following eight typical dimension:-
– Anatomy: – the perception of self determination with respect to work procedure, goals and priorities.
– Cohesion: – The perception of togetherness or sharing within the organization settings , including the willingness of members to provide materials risks.
– Trust:- The perception of freedom to communicate openly with members at higher organizational levels about sensitive or personal issues, with the expectation that the integrity of such communications will not be violated.
– Resources:- The perception of time demands with respect to task competition and performance standards.
– Support:- the Perception of the degree to which superiors tolerate members behavior, including willingness to let members learn from their mistakes without fear of reprisals.
– Recognition:- The perception that members contributions to the organizations are acknowledge.
– Fairness:- The perception that members contributions to the organizational policies are non-arbitrary or capricious.
– Innovation:- the perception that change and creativity are encouraged, including risk-taking into new areas where the member has little or no prior experience
Organizational Analysis Review
Organizations reviews are conducted into eh following states:-
- An analysis, as described below of the existing arrangement and the factors that may affect the organizations now and in the future.
- A diagnosis of what needs to be done to improve the way in which the organization is structured and functions.
- A plan to implement any revisions to the structure emerging from the diagnosis, possibly in phases. The plan may include longer-term consideration about the structure and the type of managers and employees who will be required to operate within it.
- Implementation of the plan.
The starting point for an organization review is an analysis of the existing circumstances , structure and processes of the organization and an assessment of the strategic issues that might affect it in the future in this covers:-
– The external environment: – The economic, market and competitive factors that may affect the organization plan for product-market development will be significant.
– The internal environment:- the mission, values, organization climate, management style , technology and processes of the organization as they affect the way it functions and should be structured to carry out those functions. Technological development in such areas is cellular manufacturing may be particularly important as well as the introduction of new processes such as just-in-time or the development of an entirely new computer system.
– Activities:- activity analysis establishes what work is done what needs to be done in the organization to achieve its objectives within its environment. The analysis establishes what work is done and what needs to be done in the organization to achieve its objectives within its environment. The analysis should cover what ia dns is not being done, who is doing it and where, and how much is being done. An answer is necessary to the key questions. Are all the activities required properly catered for? Are there any unnecessary activities carried out i.e. those that do not need to be done at all or those that could be conducted more economically and effectively by external contractors or providers?
– Structure:- The analysis of structure covers how activities are grouped together , the number of levels in the hierarchy, the extent to which authority is decentralized to division and Strategic Business Units (SBUs) , where functions such as finance, personnel and research and development are placed in the structure(e.g. as central functions or integrated into division or SBUs) and the relationships that exist between different units and functions(with particular attention being given to the way in which they communicate and cooperate with one another)
Attention would be paid to certain issues as the logic of the way in which activities are grouped and decentralized, the span of control manager( the number of separate functions or people are directly responsible for) any overlap between functions or gaps leading to the neglect of certain activities and the existence of unnecessary department, units, functions or layers of management.
The diagnosis should be based on the analysis is and an arrangement by those concerned with what the aims of the organization should be. The present arrangements should be considered is assess the extent to which they meet them or fall short.
It is worth repeating that there are no absolute standards against which an organization structure can be judge.
There is never right way of organizing anything and there are no absolute principles that govern organizational choice. The fashion of delivering organization has much to commend it, but it can go too far, leaving units and includes adrift without any clear guidance on where they fit into the structure and how they should work with one another and making the management task of coordinating activities more difficult.
Organization Guidelines (Execution Strategy)
There are no ‘rules’ or ‘principles’ of organization but there are certain guidelines that are worth bearing