Development Studies


Q a) Underdevelopment in a certain nation or a country is always attributed by a variety of factors.

According to modernization theories, there are responsible factors for underdevelopment namely:

Illiteracy as a factor for underdevelopment according to modernization theory implies that in a certain nation/region it can be realized that the region has low rates individuals who can read and write, this means that with low level for education in the countries underdevelopment looms. High level of illiteracy thus accounts for a country to be termed as underdeveloped.

The use of traditional methods of farming and production of food for subsistence use is a factor for underdevelopment. This is because a country is not in a position to export any cash crop in order to get  foreign change  in return for exports in their own country, unlike usage of sophisticated technologies  where farming is done for export a country is able to gain and get foreign  exchange and the foreign change can be used for other development in some other sector to boost the countries economy.

In underdevelopment country the use of plough and animals drops the economy whereas modern machines for farming can enable good production of food and cash crops for country consumption and exports hence development.

Communication as a factor for underdevelopment entails several forms of information exchange between two or more computers through any of the several methods of interconnection, principally the internet. These technologies provide speedy, inexpensive and convenient  means of communication.  If a country lacks proper ways of communication, the more likelyhood of a country being underdeveloped. This is because communication is very vital in   any setting be it in a family, institution and also a country for it to be termed as developed. Several revolutions or advances have taken place over the past 100 years in several sectors such as transport, communication, electrification and medicine and this is due to growth in technology.

And again, developing infrastructure is expensive and requires heavy funding, which cannot be borne by individuals in rural communities. The problem relates not only to the cost themselves but also to financial sustainability of the infrastructures. If a country lacks experts in special cases therefore, the local or national government must be involved in the construction of the projects with a notion that IT should be universal services to all inhabitants of the country. In developed countries, individuals are well connected to the internet via various communications links but in developing countries, individuals might not be connected due to several reasons. These include, Absence of adequate communication network infrastructure, relatively high cost of equipment that could not be afforded by the large low-income position of population and lack of government interest and support. Lack of these leads to underdevelopment in a country.

One of the basic laws underlying all stages of development is the law of saving time. Each successive economic system is characterized by the fact that society, through the expansion of its industrial capacity, produces more and more consumer’s values, while employing the same or a smaller amount of man power. Here, low division of labour by not having professionals of many fields to supplement each other for the final object of producing consumer and industrial goods can contribute to underdevelopment in a country. Thus the division of labour has two aspects specialization and cooperation .Those, in their turn, act as a stimuli to technological progress, promote the development of the industrial hence a country’s development. In the case of manufacture, itself based on the division of labour, we find industrials cooperation in the form of exchanges. Relations between individuals in              industry thus take the form of market relations. Accordingly there exists a definite correlationship between extended divisions of labour and market expansion and likewise between market and expansion and increased production hence development in a nation or  a region .

b) Economic growth refers to the increase in an economy and also the quantity of goods and services produced whereas entails the social and technological progress which can implies a change in the way of goods and services are produced, not merely an increase in production obtained using the old methods of production on a wider scale.

c) Industrializations is defined as the   transition to an economy based on the large scale machine-assisted production  of good by a concentrated and thus marginalization of human welfare concern whereby they maximize on man power for them to get quantities.

d) People’s Equal Rights should be treated with respect and dignity are representative values. For example if you value equal rights  for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better it does it workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work, consequently  you may not produce well hence leaving the company.

People’s Customs and Traditions: This entails people’s way of life and values here exist in relation to cultural values either in agreement with or divergent from prevailing norms.

Beliefs in a Supernatural   Being: This is a life aspect that reflects cultural values and behavior. This is indicated by the fact that, individuals , or groups and society at large puts their belief in a supernatural being by showing a lot of respect to themselves and other regardless  of the religious  background.

e) Comparison and constrast simply entail the differences and similarities that are  depicted between GDP and GNP

Gross Domestic Project (GDP) is mainly  concerns             with the region in which income is generated and focuses on where the outputs is produced rather than who produced it whereas the gross net product(GNP) does not necessarily  focuses on the region where.

an output was produced or where the firms for the produced items are located.

In contrast, both gross domestic product and gross net product pertain the measures of the value of the outputs produced by the “Nationals” of a region.

f  Exhaustible resources are the resources which when used cannot  be brought into use again for example minerals that can only be replenished over geologic time whereas renewable resources are the ones which can be brought into use after usage. They include forests fisheries and wildlife.


a)     Science being an intellectual   and practical activity that encompasses a systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment and technology as the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes play bigger   roles in development. Some of the development brought by science and technology. A lot of progress in science and technology has been a key driver of human and Societal Development, vastly expanding the horizons of human potential and enabling radical transformations in the quality of life enjoyed by millions of people all over the world.


Harnessing of modern sources of energy for example electricity counts among the major accomplishment of the past scientific and technologically progress. And expanding access to modern   forms of energy is itself a very vital condition for further human progress. This modern energy which grows rapidly in global demand for energy helps to fuels the economic growth and meets of a still-expanding world population.

b)     Regional integration refers to the process by which states within a particular region increase their level of interaction with regard to economic, security, political and also social and cultural issues. This comes as a result of arrangement of mainly the outcome of necessity felt by nation – states to integrate their economies in order to achieve rapid economic development, decreased conflict and built mutual trusts between the integrated units.


The creation of enabling environment for private sector development is one of the functions or regional integration. This means that when a conducive  environment is created in a certain  region  private sector can  easily get attracted and invest in that region  because of an  increased interaction  with regard to economic, security, political and also cultural  issues hence development in a region .



Strengthening of trade integration in the region is also a function for regional integration. This function of regional integration implies that trade is likely to go smoothly in a certain region when trade is being strengthened.


Regional integration contributes to peace and security in t certain region develops as a result of regional integration hence development in a certain region. They include:-

v  The creation of enabling environment for private sector development is one of the functions of regional integration. This means  that when a conducive  environment is created in a certain region private sector can  easily  be attracted  and invest  in that region because of an increased integration with regard to economic , security, political and also cultural issues hence development is a region.

v  Strengthening of trade integration in the region is also a function for regional integration. This function of regional integration implies that trade is likely to go smoothly in a certain region when trade is being strengthened.

v  Regional integration contributes to peace and security     in the region peace and security in a certain region develops as a result of regional integration hence development.

v  Due to regional integration, there is strengthening of the region’s interaction with other regions of the world. For example, a certain region can be able to interact well with other outside countries and this brings development in both regions.

v  Moreover, regional integration plays also a role in the development of strong pubic sector institutions and governance. Public sector is able to develop both in institutions and the way a region is governed due regional integration.




There are many areas of consensus in development. This implies the areas of agreement in development studies where ideas of many scholars converge. These areas of convergence are as follows:-

v  First, development studies contend that development practices and the theories used have ethical and value dimensions and can benefit from explicit analysis and criticism of other scholars from different and others from the same fields.

v  Second, development is seen as a multidisciplinary field that as both theoretical and practical components that intervene in various   ways. Hence, development ethicists aim not merely to understand development, conceived generally as desirable social change , but also to argue for and promote specific conceptions of such change.

v  Third, although they may understand the terms in somewhat different ways, development ethicists are committed to understand and reduce human deprivation and misery in poor countries.

v  Fourth, a consensus exists also that, development projects and aid givers should seek strategies in what both human well-being and a healthy environment jointly exist are mutually reinforcing.

v  Fifth, these ethicists are aware that what is frequently called “development”-for instance, economic growth has created as many problems as it has solved.

v  A sixth, area of agreement is that development ethics must be conducted  at various levels of generality  and specificity just as development  debates occur at various levels of abstraction.

v  Seventh, most development ethicists believe their enterprise should be international in the triple sense that the ethicists engaged in it came from many nations, including poor ones; that they are seeking to forge an international  consensus and that this consensus emphasis  a commitment to alleviating worldwide deprivation

v  The eighth consensus, says that, although many development ethicists contend that at least some development principles or procedures are relevant for any poor country most agree that development strategies must be contextually sensitive. What constitutes the best means for instance, state provisioning, market mechanisms, civil society and than hybrids will depend on a society’s history and stage of social change a well as on regional and global factors.


Posted on March 11, 2012, in Categorized. Bookmark the permalink. 1 Comment.

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