Define Development Theories


a)    Define Development Theory

A theory is a set of logical proposition about how the real world is structured, or the way in which it operates.

Development theory may be regarded as a set of osterilol logical preposition which aim to explain how development has accured in the past, and or how it should occur in future

Development theory is conglomeration of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.

b)    Show the relevance to Study of Development

General Development TheoriesOrganismic Theory

According to Piaget the child’s structured transforming law is to consider the whole of a stimulus, not each part separately when asked to count the rows of sex. The Childs mile structure is closed; that is, it is internal Consistent and not easily altered by extremely contradictions.

General Development Theories-Social-Information Processing Theory.

Social Information –Processing Theory

The comprehensive extension of Social Learning Theory and attribution theory is considered all of the mental processes that people use in relating to the social count. This theory recognizes that people come to social situations with a set of biologically determined capability and a database of past experience.

 

Attachment theory

Bowlby generated a theory of attachment that has had enormous influences in contemporary developments psychology. According to Bokolby infants are born with innate tendencies to seek direct contact with adults (usually the mother). In contrast with Freud’s perspective that early attachment   seeking is a function of a desire for the mother’s breast (and food) bowlby argued that attachment seeking is directed towards social contact with, the mother( the desire for a love relationship) and driven by fear of unknown other.

 

 

By about 6-8 months of age, separation from the mother arouses distress, analogous to free floating anxiety. The distress of a short-term is replaced quickly by the warmth of the reunion with the mother, but long as separation (such as occur in hospitalization or abandonment) can induce dinging, suspicion and anxiety, similar effects occur in older children until individuation occur, at which point the child is cognitively able to held a mental representation of the mother while she is gone, enabling the child to explore novelty

 

Social Learning Theory

Bandura’s social learning theory through acknowledging the constraints of biological origins and the role of neutral mediating mechanisms, emphasis the role of the individual is experience of environment in development.

 

Ecological Theory (Lewin, Bronfenbrenner, Barker)

Ecological theory evolved from the recognition that even though the environment has a major effect on development. Many models of development have limited generalization across context.

 

Attribution Theory (By Heider)

Attribution theory is more concerned with how people understand the causes of behavior.

 

Cognitive Development by Piaget

It is primarily concerned with the ways in which infants and children acquire, develop and use internal mental capabilities such as saving, memory and language.

Social and Emotional Development

This involves study of the relationship between cognition or cognitive development and social behavior.

 

 

 

c)      With reference from any developing country. Explain what you understand by development strategies.

Development strategy is most vision or goal statement provides a picture of an achievable and highly desired and product.

Kenya as a Developing Country

Vision

The vision 2030 development process was launched by President Mwai Kibaki on 30th October 2006 where he instructed national vision steering committee produce a medium-term plan with full detailed on the development programmes that would be implemented in the five years after the ERS express on 3rd December 2007. The approaches involved in assessment of critical components:-

  1. The potential of different sectors to make a wide economic impact
  2. The feasibility of unlocking that potential for the benefits of economic growth, employment and poverty-reduction.

Foundations

–          Macro-economic stability for long-term development

–          Continuity  in governance reforms

–          Enhanced equity an wealth creation

–          Infrastructure

–          Energy

–          Science , Technology and Innovator(STI)

–          Land reform

–          Human resources development

–          Security

Economic Pillar.

This aims to improve the prosperity of all Kenyans through an economic development programme, concerning all the regions of Kenya. It aims to achieve an Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate of 10% per annum beginning in 2012).

Social Pillar

Kenya here aims to build a just and cohesive society with social equity in a dean and secure environment.

Key sectors:-

–          Education and training

–          The health system

–          Water and sanitation

–          The environment

–          Housing and urbanization

–          Gender, youth and vulnerable  groups

 

Political Pillar

Aims to realize a democratic political system founded on issue based politics that respects the rules of the law and protects the rights and freedom of every individual in Kenya society. It hopes to transform Kenya into a state.

Strategies for 2012:-

–          Rule of law

–          Electoral and political process

–          Democracy and public services delivery

–          Transparency and accountability

–          Security, peace building and conflict management

 

Guiding Principles

To ensure that economic, social and political governance  gains made under the vision are neither reversed nor lost as a result of change in ruling parties , the following eight governance principles will be adhered to:-

  1. Constitutional supremacy to be respected all the time
  2. Sovereignty of the people
  3. Equality of citizen
  4. National values, goals and ideology should be formulated and adopted by all Kenyans.
  5. A viable political party system be guided by policy  and ideological differences rather than region of ethnicity
  6. Public participation in governance in order to appreciate the values of tolerance and respect for differences in opinion in an competitive society.
  7. Separation of power implemented of vision 2030 depending on enhancement of the capacity of the three arms of government (legislative, the executive and the judiciary).
  8. Decentralization vision 2030 uses devolved funds to strengthen decentralization of development projects at the community level.

 

Implementation

A Semi-Autonomous Government Agency (SAGA) with the requisite capacity has been established to oversee the implementation of the entire vision 2030 project.

Vision Delivery Secretariat

The Kenyan government has created a Vision Delivery Secretariat (VDS), which   provides strategic leadership and direction in the realization of the vision goals to ensure the timely implementations of the flagship projects. The secretariat  is managed by director-general leading a team of four directors and secretariat members under the overall guidance of vision 2030 delivery board that plays a policy –making and advisory role.

 

d)    With typical examples from your counting of origin state and explain any 5 strategies and their application.

  1. Raising the level of environmental awareness and building capacity to enable Kenyans to engage in the development achievement of Goals of Sustainable Development (SD). The environment management and coordination ALE (EMCA) establishes a link between environment protection and the right to a healthy and deal environment for all, education apparently is the primary agent of transforming towards SD.
  2. Promoting the promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD) activities education not only provides scientific and technical skills, it also provides the motivating, justification and social support for pursuing and applying them.
  3. Recognizing the special relationships that local communities have with the environment and ensuring that their perspectives are presented in ESD initiative. The mainstreaming of environmental issues into the curriculum   at primary and secondary schools in Kenya.
  4. Enhancing and supporting the integration   of ESD into all learning programmes, projects and initiatives. At early childhood education level, environmental education, (EE) is integrated in the curriculum using a thematic approach. At the primary and secondary school level, environmental issues are mainstreamed in the ensuring subjects using a multidisciplinary approach.
  5. Providing Kenyans with a framework of within which to develop effective ESD programmes. Lake Victoria Basin-Nyanza which was selected as the immediate project area is poverty stricken.

2 a) write short notes on the International and Local ways that are adopted to help                    Developing Counties Overcome Credit Issues

 

Solution to the Debt Problem

Budget Deficit

Developing countries will reduce debt problems through maintenance of a balanced budget, in this case governments should always make sure that taxation which the source of revenue for government spending does not exceed the planned government, spending, therefore governments should stop including internationals funding  in their budgets and stop over relying on loans to finance their activities.

 

Maintaining realistic exchange rates:

Overvaluing of currency will tend to reduce the price of imports but at the same time because the exports tends to more expensive then the less a country will export. Overvalued currency will also raise expectations for devaluation and this will lead to capital freight, on the other hand if currency depreciates, it raises the value of external debts, increases the level of experts and at the same time reduces imports because imports becomes more expensive therefore a country should  all the time maintained  proper and realistic exchange  rates in order to solve the problem of debts.

Better terms of trade:-

Countries should join regional integrations that offer favorable terms of trade; this will lead to increased exports value and quality leading to sustainable development which will enable them to pay up their debt and favorable terms of trade will offer favorable balance of payment will lead to reduce debt countries should  also aim at reducing balance of payment through import substitution strategies and also export  producing strategies  the import substitution strategies  will involve  the initiation of industries that produce goods that were previously imported while the exports

 

Through Research and Discovery

Many developing countries are importers of crude oil but they have done very little to discovering crude oil despots in their countries due to lack of research and discovery. This helps them discover better crops and ways of farming because these countries mostly depend on agriculture for sustainability.

 

The Paris club.

The Paris Club as formed by 19 member countries and its objectives is to provide  financial support to indebted  countries, their activities include such efforts as restructuring of debts, debt relief and debt cancellation , this efforts are aimed at reducing the debt problem and can act as a resolution to the debt problems.

 

The Baker Plan

This was a plan by the treasurer; secretary of the United States in 1985, this plan by James Baker was known as the Bakers plan and was aimed at resolving the issue of exports will lead to reduced reliance on international aid and loans. Therefore, the bakers plan is termed as a solution to the debt problem in developing countries.

 

CONCLUSION

Developing Countries are faced with the debt problem, however, this problem can be solved through international trade, high levels of export will lead to reduced reliance on international aid and loans the high level of exports can e achieved through the imports.

Substitution strategy, these two strategies will improve the balance of payment leading to a reduction of debt burden and also the country will use gains from the trade to serve the debts

 

Government should also avoid deficit budgets and the reliance of foreign aid, government should therefore collect enough revenue through taxation that will finance its spending and that spending side should always be equal or less than the revenue side of the budget.

 

Countries should also look forward in engaging themselves in research and discovery which will help discover their new resources that will help them to develop and discover better crop breeds and thus yield more, also new ways of farming that will help them yield more, most developed countries are well known for their research and discovery of more resources and that is why they developed, because they are highly mechanized and have the resources of finance research and discovery.

 

 

The international  finance institutions could also aid the developing countries  through debt relief, this would involve the writing off all debt owed to by the developing countries, this will assist the countries  in terms of development bearing in mind that most countries will spend high level of GDP to service debts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 b) write notes on structural adjustment programmes (SAP) and its effects on Developing Countries.

 

STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMMERS

In Kenyan it started as early s the mid 1970s initially the adjustments undertaken were not of much significance since they are mainly involving tinkering with the economic without changing it much. This up to the end of 1980 Kenya’s economy continued to resemble the command economies of such countries as Tanzania, with a plethora of chocking regulations and controls on most markets and economic activities. This resulted in economic stagnation and called for major structural adjustments to the economy.

 

Bold Adjustment Measures taken towards the level of 1980

i)      Decontrol of prices in the  economy

Today almost all prices in Kenya have been decontrolled has been part of a comprehensive economic liberation process implemented by the government with the support the IMF and the world bank.

 

ii)    Removal of Subsidies

The government removed subsidies on fertilizers, transport and fuels. Those on education, health care and other social services were lowered. As subsidies on most social services were lowered, they were replaced with user charges under cost sharing schemes.

 

iii) Devaluation and later Floating of the Kenya shilling

Was accompanied by the removal of almost all foreign exchange controls and restrictions. Kenya is now pursuing a liberal foreign exchange policy.

 

The rationale for devaluation

– All the commodities in any economy can be classified into two groups:i.e.

Tradeables and non-Tradeables

–  Tradable commodities: – Those which are or could be imported or exported.

Non-Tradeables:-Those which are traded only within the domestic economy

Five reasons why a commodity might be non-Tradeables

a)      It may be perishable so that it closes its value in the time it takes to transport it internationally e.g. bread and liquid milk.

b)     International  trade may be hundred by  the cost or difficulty of transportation e.g. produce from isolated areas or bulky goods worth relatively little compared to  their volume or weight

iv)   The quality of domestically produced good may be lower than that of equivalent goods traded internationally e.g. motor vehicles assembled in Kenya.

v)     There may be virtually no demand or the good (or supply of it) outside one particular country due to differing tastes or cultures. An example is rats eaten in coast province, Kenya.

  1. It is worth nothing many services are generally regarded as non-tradeable since by their nature they are provided within the domestic economy. Examples are:-

i.      Trading services such as banking and insurance

ii.      Government services like police protection

  1. The rationale for devaluation in the context of macro economic adjustment programmes are that it increased the prices of tradeable (thus encouraging their production and discouraging their consumption) while making non-Tradeables relatively. The objectives is to reduce domestic demand for exportable thus leaving more available to be exported and at the same time to encourage increased production of export and import-substitutes. In this way, devaluation is intended to improve the country’s balance of payments positions.

 

Devolution and Household Income

This depends on the way in which each household is involved in the production process. This involvement can take two forms:-

  1. Production of tradeable and non-tradeables good by the household for direct sale in the market.

Tradeables are generally produced by the rich people in the urban areas e.g. motor vehicles and television sets.

 

Non-tradeables are generally produced by the poor e.g. include most of the informed sector and micro and small scale industries.

  1. Supplying factors of production (land), labour, capital and human capita to other production units(including the  government private firms an other households ) in return  for rent, wages, interests etc,

– In the farmer case, the  relationship  between  the price effects of devaluation and the households income is indirect

a)     If price of commodity produced by household as a result of structural adjustment rises (i.e. if it is a tradeable good) the household’s income will also increase.

b)     If the community  produced by the household falls the household’s income will also fall

–  However, the price of some inputs (e.g. fertilizers’ seeds on imported seeds in the case of small scale farmers) will be increased by devaluation, increasing production cost and thus reducing income.

 

The income effects of Adjustment Measures on the urban poor.

Adjustment measures have several indirect income effects on the poor.

a)     Devaluation of local currency leads to fall in the real prices of non-Tradeables good producers of non-Tradeables good included small holders who produce substances food and workers in the informal sector whose outputs is not traded outside the country. Therefore, when Kenya devalued its currency, the urban poor experienced a fall in their real incomes due to the decline in the price of the commodities they produce.

b)     Since adjustment measures generally reduce the level of demand in the economy, this leads to a decline in the demand for labour. Urban  unemployment  increased and  income of the urban poor plummeted  precipitously

c)      As unemployment increase in the formal sector the  affected households are forced to find incomes from other sources making some households which   remain  in the formal sector fund their real income falling due to fall in the real wage rates and often seek to supplement  their incomes in the formal sector. This increases the rate of unemployment.

The Expenditure effects of Adjustment Measures on the urban poor

This relates to changes in the relative prices between different goods.

 

Four main groups of commodities whose prices increases in relative terms as a result of adjustment.

  1. Tradeables e.g. are imports, imports substitutes and goods which could have been exported. Devaluation increase in prices of these goods in terms of the local currency.
  2. Good which were previously subject to price control or subsidies. The price of such things or good increase leaving the poor worse of than before adjustment.
  3. Goods produced by state owned enterprises. When such enterprises are privatized, prices are often adjusted upwards to enable the enterprises   to make profit.
  4. Services provided by the government. The introduction of user charges for services such as education and health care leaves the poor worse off in real terms.

iv)  Divestiture of the Government from the Private Sector

Government has embarked on momentous programs of divesting itself from economic activities which are best undertaken by the private sector e.g. it disposed of its shares in the Kenya airways. Uchumi, supermarkets etc.

 

v)    Retrenchment in the Civil Service

The objectives  of retrenchment by the government was to reduce the wages  bill and hence  recurrent expenditure in order release such services for development  hence leading  the retrenched to end up poor and desperate

 

 

 

 

vi)  Reduction In The Budget Deficit

Government has been borrowing from money markets in order to finance the shortfall between revenue and expenditure. As a result investors had Limited Access to loanable funds. Since the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in the use of scarce resources such as loanable funds this denied the society the opportunity to make the best of use of its resources. And therefore, the government resorted into taxation policies and enhanced efficiency in the collection of revenues.

REFERENCES

  1. Willem H. and Richard M. (1985) International Economic Policy Coordination, Cambridge university press, UK.

 

  1. Mathew B and D Henderson (1991) Monetary Policy in Independent Economy, MIT Press, UK.

 

  1. Brian Snow (1997) Macro-Economics: Introduction to Macro-Economics, Rout Ledge Publishers, UK.

 

  1. Stratton (1999) Economics: A New Introduction, McGraw, Hill publishers

 

  1. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia (2007) Developing Countries

 

  1. Todaro M. P (2004) Economic  for a Developing World McGraw , Hill Publishers, US

Todaro M.P (2002) Economic For Development, McGraw Publishers, US

 

  1. Wood, S.E., Wood, C.E. & Boyd D. (2006) Mastering the World of Psychology (2 Ed.). Allyn &Bacon

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Posted on March 11, 2012, in Categorized and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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