i)            Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood, and the age range of adolescence various with cultural, historical circumstances. In most cultures, adolescence today starts approximately at 10-13 years of age and approximately ends between 18-22 years of age.

ii)            Puberty refers to when young person reaches sexual maturity and able to reproduce. This is a period when the sexual organ of a boy or a girl becomes well developed. In girls,puberty occurs and cease two years earlier than in boys. It occurs between in the age of 12-14 years and ceases between the age of 116-18 years. In boys it occurs at the age of puberty in every individual.

Q2       The developmental  characters of adolescent are always explained on the following:-

i)                   Besides the changes in attitudes and behavior of adolescent boys /girls the physical changes are the most striking. Adolescent starts growing very fast. His muscles start enlarging and developing into a manly shape: broad shoulders ,chest and narrow hips, voice changes and the tone starts to deepen becoming like fully grown up man’s voice whereas in girls the physical changes that appear are; increase height, broadening of the hips, development of breast, growth of the public hair and above the beginning of menstruation which marks the beginning of womanhood. Menstruation is a sign that marks the maturity of a girl. It is a sign that a girl is ready to bear children.

ii)                 The development characteristics that occur during adolescence that pertain intellectual are as follows, adolescence become increasingly capable in engaging in formed thought. They are of age 12 and 16 years, political thinking becomes more abstract and knowledgeable.

iii)               The development characteristics that appear at adolescent are many psychiatric disorders appear or become prominent during these stage most common types of emotional disorder during adolescence is depression and it is also a time of suicidal contemplation if depression becomes severe.


iv)               Morals development entails the development of a sense of values and ethical behavior. Adolescents cognitive development in part, lays the ground work for moral reasoning, honesty and pro-social behaviors such as helping, volunteerism, or caring for others. Here, adolescents can be helped by adult to facilitate moral development through modeling altruistic  and caring  behavior toward others and by helping youth take the perspective  of others in conservations for example, an adult might ask the adolescent, “ how would you feel if you were ___________?. This developmental characteristics can be indicated by the adolescent having self-control, compliance with external standards, self esteemed, empathy, conscience, altruism and more reasoning stage. Starts at the age of 4-5 years. Focus of pleasure is the genital basic conflict of phallic stages centre on the incestuous desire of child for the parent of the opposite sex. This is subconscious desire or wash in the subconscious mind of the child to kill the parent of the same sex to marry the parent of the opposite sex. Boys are attracted to their mothers a conflict referred  as eltra-complex.


If the conflicts are not handled carefully through understanding and support on the part of the parents, phallic personalities may results later in life. Phallic male character wants to sexually conquer as many women as possible to prove his manhood while the female character tries to sleep with many to compare their sexual proneness and for material gain.


Latency stage: Stage of 6-11 years. No serious event in terms of physical development takes place in this stage. The sexual drive appears to be dormant or latent hence the name latency children develop interest in their   age mates of the same sex and form groups. The spend their energy in school works, game sports and other forms of play.



Genitals stage: stage that starts at age 10-12 years it is the final stage in personality development according to Fread. If the conflicts of all the previous stage have been successfully resolved, a mature personality will emerge. A mature personality according to Fread is referred to as a genital personality.


Q 3

i)                   Fread is positions in his theory on psychosexual stages emerge as the child develops from infancy to adolescence. According to him, human personality develops  across five psychosexual stages namely: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital   stages form ages of 0 to 12 years. By the age of 12 according Fread the child is supposed to develop a mature personality. However, some children get fixed in one of the developmental stages and this sabotages the evolution of a mature personality. Such individuals will demonstrate these fixations even in their adult life.


Oral stage: the stage that starts age 0-2 years. The centre of pleasure is the mouth. The child denies pleasant sanitations through biting swallowing and sicking. Over indulgement of children at this age and under indulgence  by caregivers by either over feeding or under feeding results into oral personalities characterized by oral character traits such as a greed, selfishness , over optimist and over dependence on the other people.


Anal stage: stage of toilet training and centre of pleasure is around the anal region. According to Fread; if training is over strict and pre-mature, it will drive the child of pleasurable sensations around the anal membrane. Consequently the child will become frustrated and will transfer this effect latter in life giving rise to anal personalities characterized by over orderliness, perfectionism, stinginess and lack of flexibility. And again if the toilet training on the other hand is too lenient , allowing the child the leeway to behave as they wish in relation to toilet mannerisms , the child is likely to become careless and too permissive later in life.


Erickson Psychosocial Stages.

In 1963, Erickson built on Fread’s ideas and extended his theory by stressing the psychosocial aspect of development beyond early childhood. His theory of development holds that psychosexual growth and psychosocial growth takes place together and that at each stage of we act the tasks of establishing equilibrium between ourselves and our social world. He describes development in terms of the entire life span, divided by specific crisis to be resolved. According to Erickson, crisis is equivalent to turning point in life when we have the potential to move towards or to regress. At this turning point we can resolve and conflicts or fail to master the developmental task. To a large extent our life is the result of the choices we make at the stages.

Piaget’s periods of development. This theory by jean Piaget’s postulates that human development occurs in a sequence through the following stages-

  • Sensorimotors state that occurs in infancy, birth to age two which is characterized by egocentrison
  • Pre-operational stage entails pre-school, ages two to seven in which object permanence begins to develop and egocentrison   fades.
  • Concrete operational stage pertains childhood, ages, seven to eleven during which the dulled can conserve but has limited logical abilities.
  • Finally, formal operational stage adolescence stage which occurs after age even when abstract through develops.





Kohlberg’s Moral Understand Theories

Kohlberg’s moral theories proposed that individual go through three levels of moral development each characterized by two stages. A key concept in understanding moral development, especially Kohlberg’s theory is internalization, the developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal self-generated standards and principles


The following are the stages:-

Pre-conventional level which is considered the lowest level of moral   thinking by Kohlberg in which the individual shows no internalization of moral values. Moral thinking is based on punishment (stage 1) or reward (stage 2) that carries from the external world.


The second stage in this theory is the conventional level of moral thinking in which an individual has an intermediate level of internalization. The individual abides by certain standards (internal) such as parents (stage 3) or society law (stage 4) for example what is moral a coding to the adolescent is what is influenced by the group. Group represents authority. It means doing things as prescribed by authorization on adolescent has to do things which are conventional to the group in order to get its support.


However, the last stage is the post conventional stage which is crucial   to the personality of the adolescent. This is Kohlberg’s highest level of moral thinking. Moral development is completely internalized and not based on the standards. The individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the option and then develops personal moral code. The code s among   the principles generally accepted by the community (stage 5) or it is more conventions of the group or not to agree. The adolescent can look at right or wrong logically. There is rational analysis of norms, rules and laws.


In conclusion, therefore, Kohlberg’s idea stimulated considerable research about  how people think about moral issues, theory does not adequately reflect relationships and concerns for other and family moral reasons can always be a shelter for moral behaviors. Here, applicability of counseling takes the course of counseling adolescent about life choices and all the issues like sex, education and career. In life choices there are   adolescent’s conflicts. For example:-

Peer Vs Parent

Peer Vs School

Peer Vs Teacher

Peer Vs Adult Community.

Counselor can offer individual and group counseling “who and I”. Counselors don’t need to pressurize adolescents when they can’t make up their minds.


Ecological Theory:

Also refers to as biological theory. This theory tries to explain the varied systems of environment and the interrelationships among the systems and shape a child’s development, both environment and biological influence the child’s development and the environment affects the child and the child influences the environment.

A significant issue in development psychology is the relationship between innateness and environmental influences in regard to any particulars aspects of development. This is often referred to as “nature”  or natirism  empiriosm . A nativist  account of development would argue that the peruses in question  are innate that is they are specified by the organisms gene. An empiricist perspective would argue that those prasses are acquired in interaction with environment.


There are many contraceptives common in the market today and the one’s administered in most of the health facilities by health care providers. Adolescent today use contraceptives for varied reasons ranging the ones for prevention of early or unplanned pregnancies and these contraceptives have also their side effects depending on the contraceptive used by an individual. The following are example of contraceptives accessible for adolescent and the side effects, namely:-

Rhythm or calendar methods. Majority of the adolescent today use this method. This methods  of family planning is natural and it was meant for the purpose of child spacing  but used today as one way of preventing  the unplanned pregnancies  by adolescent. It is a natural method of family planning which was introduced by a Japanese scientist. It was realized later that, the method was most unreliable with irregular cycles. It is therefore outdated still adolescent uses this method and majority get pregnant and even sexuality transmitted injection and HIH/AIDS.


The injection:- this is the use of  like depo provera which  is widely marketed in third world countries. It is opposed to work like pills but if pregnancy occurs, it may be defected. the medical side effects are similar to those of the pills such as risk of  blood clotting, stroke, heart attack, constant or unpredictable bleeding, involuntary  sterility up to two years after stopping the injection ectopic pregnancy.


Oral Contraceptives: – entail birth control pills that are meant to prevent ovulation by blocking inteinizing  hormones, alter convical  mucas to block the entry of the sperm into the vaginal and prevent the implantation of the fertilized  ovum in the uterus. The medical side effects are: increased blood clotting hence strokes, heart attacks and blood clots in the lungs, cause high blood pressure, cancer of the uterus, breast cancer, tumors  of the bite duct to its rapture which kills a person due to massive hemorrhage, swelling,  of the retina, cause migraines and makes some women fat or extra thin.


v  Condoms: condoms are meant to prevent pregnancies, STI and HIV/AIDS infections majority. Majority of the adolescent in the world of today use condoms which are available in the market. Male and female condoms are commonly used as one of the contraceptives of preventing pregnancies today. Their side effects depend on an individual. For  some people reacts with latex and some reports that, the consistent use of condoms result for frustrations to couples as some say it delays ejaculations.


v  Jelly and foam: these are spermicidal commonly used by adolescent today before sexual intercourse for the purposes of making it kills sperms not to enable fertilization to take place. They may cause some allergies to specific individual inform of irritations.


v  Selfrt K. Hoffnug  R.J. (1991) Child Psychology And Adolescent, Dallas: Houghten Mifflin Company

v  Santrock J. W. Yussein S.R.( 1978) Child Development , Dallas: Win C  Grown  Company.

v  Muuss, R.E.(2006), Theories Of Adolescence (6th Edition). New York: McGraw Hill Publishers










Posted on March 11, 2012, in Categorized and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 1 Comment.

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