Kakuma SWOT

SWOT Analysis of Kakuma BCC Activities

A three-hour SWOT analysis workshop with key BCC staff answered the following questions:

BCC Strengths

  1. What are the strengths of the BCC program?
  • Staff attending the BCC training in Limuru returned to take the lead in planning and implementing BCC activities in Kakuma.
  • Using the resources, session plans and handouts contained on the participant cd, they have been able to share resources and conduct trainings for Implementing Partners (IPs) in hopes of better collaboration on BCC activities.
  • This resulted in the formation of a BCC Committee consisting of members from partner organizations through which BCC messages are reviewed before dissemination and resources shared for events.
  • For example, IRC and NCCK both target host communities with HIV/AIDS messages. Now, prior to disseminating those messages, they meet together for better use IEC resources and reduce duplication.
  1. Why are these our strengths?
    • The strength that IRC has in leading other organization with regards to BCC activtities stems from he perception by other IPs of IRC’s expertise.  Factors contributing to this perception of expertise include:
    • Established credibility: IRC’s role as a medical leader in Kakuma Camp—-running the major hospital, associated clinics and ambulance service and providing a comprehensive package of HIV/AIDS services.
    • Credibility in the aforementioned makes IRC well situated to relay health messages.
    • Continued credibility comes with having resources available to share with IPs in addition to advocating that BCC be prioritized.
  2. Are the BCC strengths unique or do other organizations have similar strengths?
    • These BCC strengths are unique to IRC to the extent to which IRC decides to continue making BCC a priority.
    •  As other IPs (LWF, NCCK, UNHCR Community Services) decide to share in this level of prioritizing, their strength in this will also increase.
    • Note: Operationalizing BCC concepts has been readily accepted but the need to move form this to the policy level maybe needed in the future.  It is important to work together because some groups are better at mobilizing.
  3. Is this strength easily acquirable by other organizations?
    • Yes, especially as IRC continues to share resources and training.
  4. Is this strength dependent on 1 or 2 members of the personnel, or has it been mainstreamed into the organization as a whole?
    • There are key people who have internalized the BCC concepts and taken the lead in moving things forward, namely those who attended the Limuru training.
    • It will be important to continue developing the skills of these key people going to trainings while brining new personnel up to date.
    • With regards to strategic thinking on personnel development is important to keep key staff empowered, they should also serve as focal points for BCC communication to heath unit and other country bcc programs, mailings, etc.
  5. Can this strength last and continue into the medium- or long-term? Why or why not?
    • Yes, these strengths can continue but long-term turnover and funding is a challenge.
    • The inpredictability of HIV/AIDS means we need to diversifying funding sources for BCC activities.

BCC Weaknesses

  1. What are the weaknesses of the BCC program?  
    • Programmatic weaknesses identified centered mostly on human resources and funding prospects for further activities.
    • Staff also recognize the nuances of BCC and requested a more formalized TOT package.
    • A more in-depth conversation ensued on the distinction between BCC training and BCC application—that expertise is defined by the latter.
    • It was concluded that advantage needed to be taken of the BCC Advisor to build expertise in implementing BCC practice.
  2. Do other members of the organization or beneficiaries, agree that this is a weakness?
  • A SWOT analysis of IRC services was completed with a cross section of beneficiaries in August.  One of the complaints voiced by beneficiaries was that HIV awareness campaigns “should be done in a better way.”  Further inquiry revealed that this referred to routine “campaigns” (from 2002-2007) in which loud messages were broadcast over public speakers via song, rap groups, etc.  with little regards for the audience.  Crowds for such gatherings have dwindled over time to a sparse audience of children as the rest of the population ceased to take such gatherings seriously.
  • Analysis also revealed that girls, age 13-17, felt overlooked as messages were being targeted to their parents and small children.
  • These examples from beneficiaries essentially identify weakness in the skill of segmenting the audience.
  • Generally, yes.
  • Because of BCC training, problem identification has become easier so more challenges are coming up. Maybe same focus groups can be used to remedy problems.
  • Also training needs to be more empowering to say that BCC trainees can come up with solutions to their context, but can also consult technical advisors at point when they feel more input is needed.
  • Issue of culture needs to be more thoroughly addressed in BCC training
  1. Is this weakness common in other organizations with similar interests?
  1. Consider potential ways to remedy each noted weakness, in both the short- and long-term.

BCC Opportunities

  1. What BCC needs exist in the community, but are currently not being addressed or fulfilled?
    • More targeting and segmenting to be done within the cam and host community.
    • BCC needs to target drug abusers, GBV—leading from early marriages leads to gender-based violence.
    • Host community coming into camp to look for income—-so poverty as a BCC strategy.
    • Combining with other implementing agencies as they have to profieciency in certain sectors.
    • Early marriage. Further exploring culture.
    • Issues of stigma and discrimination.
    • Other programs have approached wanting to implement BCC apart fro HIV/AIDS

2.What BCC products or services are needed and wanted in the community, yet not provided?

  • Elderly care
  • Each organization is doing HIV/BCC because their priorities are set by funds available.
  • Expertise, before Limuru, everyone was thinking of doing BCC but had no training foundation.
  1. What are some possible reasons that these BCC opportunities have not been pursued successfully by other organizations?

BCC Threats

  1. What are the external threats–camp society, politics, economic, safety, etc–to BCC activities?
    • Relations between refugee and host communities (Turkana raiding camps in 2005).
    • Cultural values – access to target groups such as Somali women who are culturally obliged to stay in the house.
    • Language barriers-refugees just entering camp and having not learned Swahili are isolated whilst they need services.
    • Outside advertisers- example Trust Condom company’s messages make government condoms look inferior.  Thus, though less expensive an equally effective, beneficiaries do not want to use government condoms.
    • Stakeholders who think condoms should not be promoted at all, ie Catholic Church.
  2. Are these threats immediately visible in the present (short-term), or are they potential threats in the medium or long term?
    • All appear to be long-term threats
  3. What are the internal threats that can affect the status of BCC programs from the inside?
    • Rumors of people in the camp.
    • BCC is not taking seriously on multiple levels, administrative support (logistical and materials).  This means resources have to be shared with other programs, putting BCC activities at a disadvantage when choices need to be made on use o cars, supplies, etc.
    • Staff turnover, if those who attended Limuru training leave, a big gap will be left.
    • Motivation (money)- example the use of peer educators to carry messages is compromised when other responsibilities are added without increase in compensation.
  4. What range of solutions and responses against these threats exist? Be both idealistic and realistic.
    • Cost sharing of BCC activities, including training, with other IPs maybe feasible until more dedicated budgets come about.
    • The issue of staff turnover maybe mitigated through targeted and broad training—-balance between keeping those with advanced knowledge current, while bringing all new staff up to a base knowledge level.
    • Include a budget for BCC activities in all projects— focus group discussion drinks, etc.
    • Effectively using the skills of the BCC advisor to work through each step of the BCC approach, critically analyzing and solving problems as they arise.



 The SWOT exercise has helped the group understand where they are now – where they want to be in one year’s time and the activities that will take them there (the strategic plan).

 Objective #1 – Produce Kakuma BCC Strategy Document

Activity 1.1-Review of BCC Actitivies by Rose – almost finished

Activity 1.2 – SWOT Analysis of BCC Programming – Charles, Joseph, Norbert, Rose and Dorothy-done

Activity 1.3 – Revising exiting work plan based on SWOT and BCC review —-BCC Team

e.g. Produce BCC strategy documents that clearly explains and reviews BCC rational, target groups, targeted practices, most effective communication media and shows documented evidence of behavior change.

 Objective #2 – Human Resources and Staff Development

Activity 2.1 – Identify sources for motivational support, including positive feedback

Activity 2.2 – Build capacity of key BCC staff through routine refresher trainings and problem solving workshops with Rose

Activity 2.3 – Inform the progress of the BCC Workgroup as they product training and toolkits.

e.g on the job practical training program (tie in the BCC Advisor) , exchange visits, workshop in 6 months time to share practical field experience and review strategy

 Objective #3 – Identify Mechanisms and Opportunities for Funding

Activity 3.1 – Converse with other IPs on cost sharing

Activity 3.2 – Looping BCC activities into other proposals

Activity 3.3 –

e.g. plan to identify potential donors and produce at least two concept papers for BCC related funded work before end of FY08. Use documented evidence of BCC success  to support applications.

 Objective #4 – Prioritize the practicing each step of the BCC approach

Activity 4.1-Involve Community in production of IEC materials

Activity 4.2-Focus on skill development around segmenting the audience

Activity 4.3

 Objective #5 – Increase Awareness of Kakuma BCC Activities

Activity 5.1 – Strengthening Linkages Between Sectors and Partnership by sharing experiences between implementing staff

Activity 5.2- – Advocate for BCC within our own organization Write article about BCC Kakuma for Health Unit Newsletter

Activity 5.3






Objective Activity Target  group  Responsible person Time Required resources Assumptions
To sensitize staffs on BCC approaches Feedback to program incentives Field motivators and counselors Ogosi,kizito,Lizzy,


and Pierot

27/7/07 Stationeries ,LCD ,Fuel and


Maximum representation
Feedback to IPs( NCCK,CHP,FAI,

Curative and ASNE)

National IPs staffs Ogosi,kizito,Lizzy,


and Pierot

1/8/07 Stationeries and LCD Maximum representation
To engage stake holders in identification of health problem and prioritization Identify challenges related to HIV/AIDS-(VCT,PMTCT,PLWHA and DCT) Community leaders, religious and youth leaders, women groups, security,TBAs and CHW Ogosi,kizito,Lizzy,


and Pierot


to 15/8/07

Checklist, stationeries

Note taker ,moderator and refreshments

Maximum representation
To develop Health promotion messages Key BCC messages to primary audiences Primary audience Ogosi,kizito,Lizzy,


and Pierot


to 22/8/07

Stationeries,CD /Video Camera,radio tape,T-shirts


Availability of resources
To share and create acceptance of the BCC-IEC materials for adoption Pretest the messages, posters, radio shows, dramas etc. Primary and secondary audience



and Pierot


to 1/9/07



and writing materials

Maximum representation
To disseminate BCC health promotion messages Carry out BCC activities Segmented audiences Ogosi,kizito,Lizzy,


and Pierot

5/9/07 to 30/12/07 PAS,Staffs, refreshments and transport Staff retention in the program

Posted on March 5, 2012, in Categorized and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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