• Proportion of female sex workers who consistently use condoms with non regular sex partners (negotiated condom use)
  • Number of clients/partners per day/month/year
  • Types of sexual acts (e.g. vaginal/anal/oral sex)
  • Proportion of male sex workers
  • Reasons why sex workers became sex workers
  • Proportion of those who receive regular health check-up
  • Locations where sex workers go for health check
  • Economic status (e.g. annual income)
  • Alcohol use and the influence of alcohol in sexual decision-making
  • Drug use and the influence of drug use in sexual decision-making

There is still no cure, and there is still no vaccine. Common thinking was that this disease was principally a public health challenge. That was wrong: HIV/AIDS is reversing decades of development gains, increasing poverty and undermining the very foundations of progress and security. The epidemic demands a response that confronts the disease in every sector, but education has a particularly important role to play.


In Kenya teacher deaths rose from 450 in 1995 to 1,500 in 1999 (reported by the Teaching Service Commission), while in one of Kenya’s eight provinces 20 to 30 teachers die each month from AIDS (Gachuhi 1999).

School-age girls

Girls and young women are highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS (box 2-4), and a lack of education makes them more so. Girls are at greater risk than boys because of gender inequalities in status, power, and access to resources. A study in 72 capital cities (32 in Sub-Saharan Africa) showed significantly higher HIV infection rates not only for girls, but for all adults, where the gap between male and female literacy rates was larger (Over 1998). Girls are particularly vulnerable to contracting AIDS for social, cultural, economic, and even physiological reasons (figure 2-6). Greater risk arises from practices that encourage girls to accept older men as partners in preference to their peers (the “sugar daddy” syndrome); customs such as early marriage, a man’s inheritance of a deceased brother’s wife, some sexual practices, and abduction; child-rearing practices and initiation messages that encourage girls to be nonassertive and to accept subordinate

status in relation to their husbands and other men; and social norms that inhibit girls’ discussion of sexual health and accord inferior status to women. By contrast, some cultural norms can reduce girls’ risk of HIV/AIDS infection, such as those of the Indian subcontinent shown to be effective in protecting girls from premarital and extramarital sex (Caldwell and others 1999).

Posted on March 3, 2012, in Categorized and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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