Food and Nutrition

Adolescent and Adult Psychology

–          It is change in life from childhood to adulthood. During adolescent experiences both physical and emotional changes. Physical changes are those changes  that can be seen while emotional changes are psychological.

–          Adult psychological

Definition of Personality.

–          The complex of all the attribute (Behavioural, temperamental, emotional and metal) that characterized and unique individual.

–          Personality development starts from child birth and activities life time.

Theories of Personality Development

(Check handouts).

Application of psychoanalytic theory in an ECDE class

Refer to the notes.

How to make children avoid fixation in the five stages.

Refer to the notes (our class notes)

Defense mechanism

(Refer handout)

How to help a child avoid fixation

Oral stage.

–          Breastfeed the child and don’t weam the child so early so that to help develop a strong attachment towards caretaker/mother

–          Attend to the  child incase of trouble

Anal stage

–          Train the child when he is ready to be trained.

–          Children should be trained to follow instructions and how to use language to address and express their needs and to go to the toilets.

–          Don’t be too strict to children during toilet training and also accept accent as a matter of act to reduce the feelings of quilt and fear of soiling himself and when he grows up.


Phallic stage

–          Avoid punish the child for touching his or her sex organ or asking about sex organs or showing curiosity about sexual matters.

–          Make child busy with activities and play materials

–          Give the child enough attention so has to divert the child interest in touching sex organ.

–          Let the children know that they are supposed to cover their sex organ and take good care of then because they are very important.

Latency Stage

–          Allow children to engage in play activities with other children of the same sex.

–          Encourage children and work hard in class work and allocate them some responsibilities.

Genital Stage

–           Parent and teachers understand when adolescent are just asserting their independence and when they are rebellious and disobedient.

–          Parent and teachers should guide the adolescence to enable them build a healthy relationship with peers of the same and opposite sex.


–          Parents and care givers need to help children have a healthy balance between initiative and guilt. They should encourage them to carry their goals with guidance in activities.

–          Parents/ teachers should provide a simulative environment which allows the child to carry out his or her goals. For example provide them with a variety of materials for play and give play opportunities.

–          Parents should provide with opportunity to go to school this is where they acquire skills like reading, writing, and skills of self-identification and how to live with others for example, turn taking and respect.

–          Children should be given challenging task and reinforced to carry out the task to completion.


  1. 1.    Compensation

This occurs when an individual attempts to overcome imagined or real infenities or even weaknesses by developing ones abilities e.g. a child who is weak in academic performance may compensate it by being good in athletics or sports.

  1. 2.    Reaction Formation

This involves acting opposite of the way one feels e.g. when a person becomes attracted to brutality of war he/she will automatically later become a peace maker or a peace activist.

  1. 3.    Regression

This is behaving in away that are impropriate for  one’s age or it is reducing to an earlier  age deeds e.g. a child who is bedwetting  an inappropriate age, or  child of about 6 yrs regress to be breastfed by the mother.

 4.    Sublimation

This type of defense mechanism occurs when a useful course of action represses unacceptable one e.g. when an angry person goes to do handwork like digging.

  1. 5.    Repression

This is pushing the memory of something unpleasant into the unconscious. It can also imply pushing unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious e.g.  A child “forgets” about troublesome bully on the school bus as soon as he/she gets safe home from school everyday.

  1. 6.    Projection

This is seeing one’s own behaviour or believes in other whether they are actually present or not e.g. a child who steals other people accuses others of doing the same.

  1. 7.    Denial

This is behaving as if a problem does not exist or it is refusing to accept the motive.

  1. 8.    Rationalization

This is creating an explanation to justify an action or to deal with a disappointment. Real motives of an individuals behaviour is not accepted by  age and  is repressed by a hidden motive e.g. a child who  wants to go out with friends and is not permitted, might say; “after all the company was not going to be good anyway.

  1. 9.    Displacement

This is directing emotions to an object or to a person other than the one that provoked it. It can also shifting blames to others either objects or people e.g.  A child can transfer from problems to school.


–          KIE (2009) ECD Child Development Published By Kenya Institute Of Education Nairobi Kenya.

–          Edith B. Njagi (2009) Child Growths And Development II Published By Longhorn Kenya Ltd Nairobi Kenya.

–          Edith B. Njagi (2009) Child Growths And Development II  Autoluto Ltd Nairobi.

–          Kenya Institute Of Education (2009) General Psychology Published And Printed By KIE Ltd Nairobi Kenya


Posted on March 2, 2012, in Categorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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