Motivation is concerned with the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms usually towards some goals:- motivation can be triggered by external or internal sources. If one is motivated is the behavior becomes activated and the goal is achieved.
The study of motivation seeks to understand or identify why people seek to do the things they do? I.e. psychologists studying motivation ask questions such as these why do people choose particular goals for which they strive? What specific motives direct behavior?
The Theories of Motivation
The complexity of motivation has led to the development of a variety of conceptual approaches. Although the vary in the degree to which they focus on biological ,cognitive and social factors, all seek to explain the energy that guides people’s behavior in particular direction.
i) Instinctive Approaches born to be Motivated
According to the instinctive approaches to motivate, people and animals are born with pre-programmed sets of behavior essential for their survival. These instincts provide the energy that behavior in appropriate directions. Hence sex might be explained as a response to an instinct for reproduction and explanatory might be viewed as motivated by an instinct to examine one’s territory.
ii) Drive- reduction approaches(satisfying our needs)
Drive-reduction theory/approaches to motivation when a person or people lack some biological requirement such as water, a drive to obtain that requirement is produced. A drive is motivation tension or arousal that energies behavior in order to fulfill some needs many back kinds of drives such as hunger, thirst, sleepiness and sex are related to biological needs of the body or of the species as a whole. This are called primary drives in secondary drives, needs are brought about by prior experience and learning for example, the need to achieve academically and in careers.
iii) Arousal approaches theory(Beyond drive reduction )
According to arousal approach or theories to motivation, each of us tries to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity. As with drive reduction model, if our stimulation and activity level becomes too high, we try to reduce them. But in constrant to drive reduction model, arousal model also suggest that if the level of stimulation and activity are too low, we will try to increase by seeking ore stimulation.
iv) Incentive Approaches Theory(Motivation Pull)
Incentive approaches to motivating attempts to explain why behavior is not always motivated by all internal needs, such as the desire to reduce drives or to maintain an optimum level of arousal. Instead of focusing on internal factors, incentive theory explains motivation in terms of the nature of external stimuli, the incentive that direct and energers behavior. In this view, properties of external stimuli largely account for a person’s motivation.
Cognitive approaches theory(the thoughts behind motivation)
Cognitive approaches focus on the role of our thoughts, expectation and understanding of the world. Cognitive theories of motivation draw a key distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than any tangible reward that it will bring us. In contract, extrinsic motivation causes us to do something for a tangible reward. According to research on the types of motivation we are more apt to preserve work harder and produce work of high quality when motivation for a task is intrinsic rather than extrinsic. Some psychologist go further, suggesting that providing reward for desirable behavior may cause intrinsic motivation to decline and extrinsic motivation to increase.
v) Maslow Hierarchy Of Needs(Ordering Motivation Needs)
Maslow model considers different motivation needs to be ordered in a hierarchy . Maslow suggested that before more sophisticated, higher ordered needs can be conceptualized as pyramid in which the more basic needs are at the bottom and a higher level needs are at the top.
- In order for a particular need to be activated and thereby guide a person behavior, the more basic needs in the hierarchy must be me first.
- The most basic are these described earlier as primary drives e.g. Need for water, sleep, food, sex and the like.
- In order to more up the hierarchy a person must have these basic physiological needs met first. Safety needs come next in the hierarchy. Maslow’s suggested that people need a safe, secure environment in order to function effectively. Physiological an safety needs compose the lower are met can a person consider fulfill higher order need such as the need for love, a sense of belonging ,esteem, and self actualization.
- Love and belonging need include the need to obtain and give affection and to be a contributing member of some group or society. After these needs are fulfilled the person strives for esteem. Esteem is related to the need to develop a sense of self-worth by throwing that others are a wear of one’s competence and value.
- Once the lower and the higher for the highest levels need. Self-actualization, self-actualization is a state of self fulfillment in which people realize their higher potential. For example, a teacher who year after year, creates an environment that maximizes opportunities for success will realize high potential. The most important things is that people feel at ease with themselves and satisfy that they are using their talent and the fullest.
- In a sense, achieving self actualization produces a dead line in the striving and yarning for greater fulfillment that works most people life and instead provides a sense of satisfaction with the current state of affairs.
vi) Atribulation Theory by Heida 1958 and Weinner 1974
i) They proposed that every individual ties to explain success of self and other by offering attribution. The attribution are external or internal are, either under control or not under control.
ii) In the clearing situations this can also be applicable. In the learning environment it important to assist the learner to develop self attribution, explanation of internal effort.
iii) In an ECDE class the teacher should give aid appropriate activities to cater for the ability and also develop the self attribution self. Allow flexibility and allow individual interest and more at the base of the learner.
Factors affecting the Development of learner’s Motivation
iv) According to Jeve Porophy (1987) motivation to learn is a competence acquired through general experience but stimulated most through:-
i. Directly modeling
ii. Communication of expectation
iii. Direct instructions or socialization by significant others(especially parent and teachers)
v) Learners motivation in learning can be motivated by the following factors:-
i) The Home Environment
- Children’s home environment shapes the initial collection of attitudes they develop towards learning. When parent nurture their children’s natural curiosity, about the world by welcoming their questions, encouraging exploration an familiarizing them with resources that can enlarge their world, they are giving their children the messages that learning is worthwhile and frequently fun and satisfying.
- When children are raised home environment that nurtures a sense of self worth, competence, autonomy and self efficacy, they will be more opt to accept the risk interest in learning.
How to motivate child at home
- Parent being keen to them
- Provided desired love and appreciation by a parents and caregivers
- Desire to increase their knowledge, skills or talent which motivate them to learn
- Involving of parents in school meetings, school opening days, attending parent days and accompanying children to field trips.
ii) The School Environment
Once children start school, begin forming believes about their school-related success and failures. The resources which children attribute their successes and failures have important implication for how they approach and cope learning situations.
The believes that teachers have about teaching and learning and the nature off expectations they hold for learners also exert powerful influences, school goals, policies ,and procedures also interact with classroom climate and particies to a firm or alert learners increasingly learning related attributes and beliefs.
How to help a child to be motivated in school
- Provide relevant satisfying and positive feed backs and catter for individual differences
- Give the child a positive complement by encouraging their effort
- Provide the children constructive activities to enjoy because they are likely to follow them.
- Arrange and organize up the activities to track the progress of the children
- Involve the children in the activities that will build and improve their self worth(self-esteem)
- Create a conducive learning environment by setting functional and attractive learning corners, centres of interests and home centres.
- Vary learning activities during the lesson by including short stories, songs riddles, poems etc.
The societies at large and the local environment
- Society and the local environment are expected to provided a conducive, enabling and appropriate atmosphere to enhance learning motivation.
How a society and the local environment help to motivate a child in learning situation
i) Encouragement of policies dealing with relationship in the society.
ii) Empowering the parents to take care of their children.
iii) Create suitable environment for children.
APPLICATION OF MOTIVATION IN CLASSROOM SITUATION.
i) Having an attractive classroom which is neat, comfortable decorated with pictures and are clean and relevant.
ii) Checking on the physical comfort of the learner by giving seats with backrest not benches, sufficient light, and classroom well ventilated.
iii) Creating a favorable environment by using motivation techniques such as set induction (attract children attention by the use of stories).
iv) Stimulus radiations-refer to the action of the teacher which develops and maintain a hunger level of attention e.g. use of role of play, mock trial, having some drawings.
v) Reinforcement-support learners by reinforcement techniques such as verbal rewards, use of learners names, encourage weak ones, give the gifts sometimes.
vi) Attractive content-varying the atmosphere from serious to higher utteredness, formal to informal strict but kind.
vii) Building a desire for learning –let the children desire to learn, carry for the learners differences.
viii) Set and maintain higher levels of aspiration by involving the learners setting targets.
ix) Cultivate the spirit of competition in learners
- Creating a spirit of cooperation, engage them in group work, involvement in class activity, have general guide line in the expectation or children by making rules.
- Ignore behavior that affects learning unless the child injured.