Concept Paper (First Draft)
Concept Paper (First Draft) By Jacobam William
Project Title: BCC for Youth in Lodwar through Hossana FM Radio.
Introduction and Background Information
The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has been operational in Kenya since 1992, focusing initially on health activities in Kakuma Refugee Camp; from 1997, the IRC became the sole implementing partner for the entire health sector in KRC, under the operational umbrella of UNHCR. With additional support from the CDC, the IRC started implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Turkana District in September 2001, in Lokichoggio in 2004, in Kalokol &Kakuma host community in 2005 and in 2007 Lodwar. The program now targets four divisions of the larger Turkana District, namely Kakuma, Lokichoggio, Lodwar and Kalokol. Apart from Kakuma refugee camp, implementation at other sites is through partners namely, Kakuma Mission Hospital, the African Inland Church (AIC) and Lodwar District Hospital (MOH).
HIV BCC activities have been an integral part IRC HIV/AIDS programs at all sites. A variety of communication methods are used, for example, awareness through community/religious leaders, training workshops, theatre, public address, distribution of condoms & I.E.C materials. The program is implemented through a team of community Health workers and counselors, attached to the VCT centers and supervised by the Health Facility or VCT in-charge. IRC has never used mass media in BCC activities because there was no radio/TV reception in the District for a long time. Last year Hossana FM Radio was launched in Lodwar to the excitement of the local community since broadcast is done both in Kiswahili and Turkana. The airwaves cover a radius of 45 km. This means that many villages around Lodwar can be reached. IRC has been the first NGO on the ground to collaborate with the station in its activities. IRC staff engaged the station for Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) awareness and publicity during the 16 days of activism last year and the response from the community was overwhelming. IRC HIV/AIDS staffs have since established a good working relationship with Hossana FM radio and would also wish to engage the station for HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns around Lodwar. IRC is working closely with other stake holders namely, UNICEF, Oxfam G-B, Diocese of Lodwar, World Vision and the Ministry of Health (MOH) in this endeavor.
Purpose/ problem statement
Studies conducted in Turkana District indicate that the prevalence rate is high (8%) compared to other parts of the Rift Valley province (Sentinel Survey: 2006). It is unacceptable that whereas the prevalence in the country is on a downward trend, in Turkana it is increasing. Generally in Kenya HIV/AIDS remains a major health concern because of the relatively high prevalence rates reported among adult populations and significantly high rates among younger ages. According to the 2003 KDHS, 75% of AIDS cases occur among young people in the most economically productive age group of 20-49 years. The commonest mode of HIV transmission is heterosexual sex which accounts for 90% of new cases. Young people are especially vulnerable to HIV infection with those in ages 15-24 having over twice the HIV prevalence rate of the population as a whole.
Findings from the 2006 Sentinel Survey at Kakuma refugee camp and host community indicate that the level of awareness about HIV/AIDS for both men and women is very high at 98% for women and 99% for men. 25% women and 37% men with no education had sex by age 15 whereas only 4% women and 22% men with above a secondary had sex by age 15. Early sexual debut is higher in the rural areas (22%) than in the urban areas (17%)
VCT has been identified as an effective strategy for HIV prevention and more recently as an entry point to care and support. This is because knowledge of HIV status helps HIV negative people to make specific decisions to reduce risk and increase safer sex practices while those who test HIV positive are better able to protect their sexual partners and access care and treatment for opportunistic infections. 48% women and 62% men have heard of VCT. Awareness is highest among those in their early twenties (20-24yrs) However; awareness of VCT has not necessarily translated into uptake of services. Only 15% of women and 16% of men have ever been tested for HIV (Source: KDHS, 2003)
- Protecting teenage girls and young women remains a great challenge for controlling HIV infection in Kenya.
- There is a gap between HIV/AIDS awareness and action to change to positive behavior that will prevent infection. There is need to uncover the barrier and address it in order to convert the high HIV transmission and prevention awareness into positive behavior change.
- There is need to increase the percentage of people who have correct knowledge and beliefs about HIV/AIDS in order to reduce fear and stigma and increase testing. There is also need to establish methods to reach the low literacy people through non conventional media channels such as community drama, advocacy, mobile cinema etc
- There is need increase accurate self risk assessment even for those in “faithful” relationships by addressing issues of trusted partner.
- There is need to increase VCT awareness especially amongst men and women and in rural areas so as to increase VCT uptake in those areas.
- Continue addressing issues of myths and misconceptions in order to reduce stigma and increase percentage of those who willingly seek counseling and testing services.
- Abstinence messages should eventually shift focus to rural areas as sexual debut is low due to low levels of education. This could also be due to a bigger influence of social and cultural practices such as early and forced marriages especially for girls and pressure on boys to engage in sex early to prove their manhood. With the governments current move on free education it will be easier to reach this target.
IRC intends to step up BCC activities in Lodwar to address some of the gaps mentioned above. IRC will diversify to integrate media (radio) into its BCC activities to effectively address the above areas of need. Mass media (radio) will compliment other BCC approaches and publicize our programs. The radio is relatively inexpensive and reaches many people at once compared to other communication channels.We will also be able to reach rural villages where there is no electricity since radios use batteries (dry cells).
With the radio, IRC will reach both literate and illiterate audiences with messages in both Kiswahili and Turkana. This is a new venture and will make IRC the first NGO in Lodwar to use mass media for HIV/AIDS awareness campaign. There are other NGOs on the ground working in the area of HIV/AIDS but none of them is directly addressing BCC and using radio as the channel of passing HIV/AIDS messages/information. IRC through Lodwar District Hospital will therefore be the first organization to implement BCC activities at the site. It will also be the first organization to partner with Hossana FM Radio to reach large groups of people with HIV/AIDS messages quickly and effectively.
The project will be guided by the 12 steps BCC strategy approach. IRC will employ the strategy in identifying the target group and use the target group to assist in determining effective messages. Tentatively IRC intends to target the youth with awareness messages in a thematic approach. Four thematic areas will be covered namely, Self-risk perception, condom efficacy, Stigma reduction and abstinence. We shall utilize Hossana FM Radio to:
¨ Increase self-risk assessment skills among 15-24 years old
¨ Stimulate public discussions and debates on stigma
¨ Advocate for sexual abstinence as the only 100% safe method for avoiding unplanned pregnancy and STIs including HIV/AIDS
¨ Create awareness on how pervasive the problem of cross-generational infection issue is to the public
¨ To demystify condoms and deal with myths and misconceptions about condoms
¨ Publicize our HIV/AIDS activities in the district
Requirements: Media briefs on self-risk assessment skills, stigma and discrimination, Abstinence, cross-gen HIV infection and condom efficacy, members of the network as guests/interviewees. Our stakeholders (NGOs, & MOH), programmatic and celebrity opinion leaders as well as PLWA will be key resources as guests in these programs.
Goals and Objectives for the Radio program
Overall BCC Program Goal is to:
Reduce HIV infection rates by promoting behaviors that prevent transmission and encourage change in those behaviors that lead to transmission of HIV through education, awareness creation and challenging of social norms that affect sexual behavior.
Summary Themes, Objectives and Strategies
|Theme||Communication Objective||Specific Objectives||Strategies|
|A) Self-risk perception campaign||
||Ö Increased awareness and knowledge risk practices ( emphasis on trusted partner)
Ö Increase knowledge of when one can “trust their partner”: condom use, sero status knowledge, fidelity
|B) Condom Efficacy Campaign||
||Ö Debunking condom myths and misconceptions
Ö Improve condom use skills by enhancing negotiation skills
Ö Increase knowledge about condoms and their use
Ö Increase knowledge on when to discontinue condom use “after both partners know their status through VCT
|C) Stigma Reduction Campaign||
|Ö Debunking myths of HIV infection
Ö Education on the three highly preventable ways of acquiring HIV
Ö Promoting fearless casual interaction between positive and negative people
Ö Promoting VCT
Increase societal support of people living with HIV
Ö Increase understanding about handling and living with PLWAs
Ö Promote positive living
Ö Promote VCT
|D) Abstinence & Secondary virginity Campaign||
- IRC will conduct a formative BCC assessment to establish target population profiles to be used in developing messages.
- Follow the BCC 12 steps approach in choosing the target group, determine effective messages and development of scripts
- Design weekly health programs to inform and educate the community about HIV/AIDS/STDs. We will give it a thematic approach where each theme will run for at least one month. With the help of Community Health Workers, we will form radio listening groups in the community and facilitate them to listen and discuss themes presented.
- Dramas (soap operas) – we will use IRC drama groups on the ground for this purpose. We will design and write scripts with story lines on the themes.
- Spots, Jingles and PSAs- These are brief songs with messages to promote the themes
- Youth forums- We will target adolescents and young adults who will hold discussions on problems that affect adolescents and young adults. We will use positive role models by local youth such as well known youth, celebrities, singers, actors and athletes.
- Call in programs- this will target those with cell phones. People can call in and ask personal questions without being identified. We will also give our e-mail address so that those who might want to do so send their questions in advance.
- “Live Audience Shows”- Here we will invite one to three experts from partners (NGOs, MOH, PLWHAs) to discuss a specific issue in front of a live audience. After the experts are finished speaking, the members of audience ask questions. This will be recorded and aired.
|Writing Concept||March 2008|
|Formative BCC Assessment to establish target population profiles to be used in developing messages||Available studies, BSS & related studies, FGDs, In-depth interviews, key informant interviews, direct observation||April / May|
|Choosing the target group, determine effective messages, & development of scripts||Follow BCC for HIV/AIDS strategic framework ( 12 steps process)||June|
|Self-risk assessment skills||Health program- inform and educate the community about HIV/AIDS/STDs, Live Audience shows, Dramas, Spots, Jingles and PSAs||July|
|Cross Generational sex||Youth Forums, Live Audience Dramas, spots, Jingles and Public service announcement||August|
|Abstinence & Secondary virginity||Youth Forums, Live Audience Dramas, spots, Jingles and Public service announcement||September/October|
|Stigma & Discrimination||Health program- inform and educate the community about HIV/AIDS/STDs, Live Audience Dramas, Spots, Jingles and PSAs||November|
|Condom Efficacy||Health program- inform and educate the community about HIV/AIDS/STDs, Live Audience, Dramas, Spots, Jingles and PSAs||December 2008|
- Get messages to thousands of people within the radio catchment area
- Raise people’s awareness of HIV/AIDS in their community
- Provide information on HIV/AIDS/STDs
- Educate people about how to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS/STDs
- Assist in shapping ideas about safe sex
- Encourage people to practice safe sex
- Help people change behaviors by imitating role models
- Help people understand the benefits of behavior change
- Help people understand how to change their behavior
- Introduce and reinforce new social practices
- Publicize our programs
- Keep HIV/AIDS/STDs and other relevant issues on the public agenda.
Monitoring and Evaluation
- Mapping of activities and setting specific targets to guide activities
- Summary of activities conducted and reported against targets
- Monitoring sheets will be used for every activity
- Other monitoring activities will include spot checks, attending rehearsals, corroboration with community members and informal interviews with community members and end of activity assessment.
- Quarterly FGDs with community members
- Developing monitoring sheets for audience who receive our input
- Spot checks interviews of community members and corroboration
- Regular monitoring visits by BCC officer/Manager.
Support Needed & Costs
- Payment for radio air time (30 minutes per week @ Ksh 2,500) Ksh 10,000/= per month
- Lunch & Transport allowance for guest speakers and/or drama group members
- Recorder for field worker Ksh 8,000/=
- I.E.C materials (T-shirts & Cap) for participants/winners in radio promotional shows or call in sessions.
- At one point buy batteries for radio listening groups in the community